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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-20

Cardiovascular disease risk assessment in Nigerian adults with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome using the Framingham's risk score

1 Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Cardiology Unit, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Ifeoma Christiana Udenze
Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jncd.jncd_33_17

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Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the cardiovascular risk scores of type 2 diabetics with those of individuals with metabolic syndrome and in healthy controls and examine the impact of glycemic control and lifestyle on cardiovascular risk. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of adult Nigerians with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and age- and sex-matched controls. Written informed consent was obtained from all the participants. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS software version 20.0 package. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores between the group with diabetes (20.41 ± 12.98), metabolic syndrome (10.00 ± 6.35) and the control group (6.79 ± 7.81) (P < 0.001), and also in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c),high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, total cholesterol , and triglyceride concentrations between the groups (P < 0.05). CVD risk correlated positively and significantly with HbA1c, body mass index and waist circumference and negatively with the level of education (P < 0.05). Only 52.2% of the people with diabetes on treatment achieved HbA1ctarget of <7%. Conclusion: People with Type 2 diabetes had high CVD risk scores, control of CVD risk factors is not optimum in adult Nigerians. Strategies to achieve better glycemic control, weight reduction, and increase literacy levels will help achieve CVD risk reduction in adult Nigerians.

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